Critical examination of the significance of mass media and/or popular culture for the development of Spanish-speaking nation-states in the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. Forms studied may include but are not limited to: Newspapers, popular novels, lithography, photography, radio, film, television, public art, sport, performance, digital media. Students will use readings in critical theory to explore ways in which forms of mass and popular culture connect to social imaginaries. Enhancement of advanced analytical skills in Spanish through different modules of lecture, reading, discussion, and writing. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 6 credits.